Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a problem caused by hormonal imbalance in women. It can cause problems with your periods and make it difficult to get pregnant. PCOS may also cause unwanted changes in the way you look. If it isn't treated, over time it can lead to serious health problems, such as diabetes and heart disease. Most women with PCOS grow many small cysts in their ovaries. That is why it is called polycystic ovary syndrome. The cysts are not harmful but lead to hormonal imbalance.
Early diagnosis and treatment can help control the symptoms and prevent long-term problems. Hormones are chemical messengers that trigger many different processes, including growth and energy production. Often, the job of one hormone is to signal the release of another hormone. For reasons that are not well understood, in PCOS the hormones get out of balance. One hormone change triggers another, which changes another. For example: The sex hormones get out of balance. Normally, the ovaries make a tiny amount of male sex hormones (androgens). In PCOS, they start making slightly more androgens. This may cause you to stop ovulating, get acne, and grow extra facial and body hair. The body may have a problem using insulin, called insulin resistance. When the body doesn't use insulin well, blood sugar levels go up. Over time, this increases your chance of getting diabetes.
Reasons for PCOD - The cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but genetics may be a factor. PCOS seems to run in families, so your chance of having it is higher if other women in your family have it or have irregular periods or diabetes. PCOS can be passed down from either your mother's or father's side.
Symptoms of PCOD - Symptoms tend to be mild at first. You may have only a few symptoms or a lot of them. The most common symptoms are:
Weight gain and trouble losing weight
Extra hair on the face and body. Often women get thicker and darker facial hair and more hair on the chest, belly, and back
Thinning hair on the scalp
Irregular periods - Often women with PCOS have fewer than nine periods a year. Some women have no periods. Others have - very heavy bleeding
Diagnosing PCOD - You may get a pelvic ultrasound to look for cysts in your ovaries. Your doctor may be able to tell you that you have PCOS without an ultrasound, but this test will help him or her rule out other problems.
Treatment Options for PCOD - PCOD needs more of life style managment than any medication. Following can help reduce the effects of PCOD:
Regular exercise, healthy foods, and weight control are the key treatments for PCOS. Treatment can reduce unpleasant symptoms and help prevent long-term health problems. Try to fit in moderate activity and/or vigorous activity often. Walking is a great exercise that most people can do.
Eat heart-healthy foods. This includes lots of vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, and whole grains. It limits foods that are high in saturated fat, such as meats, cheeses, and fried foods.
If you smoke, consider quitting. Women who smoke have higher androgen levels that may contribute to PCOS symptoms. Your doctor may also prescribe birth control pills to reduce symptoms, metformin to help you have regular menstrual cycles, or fertility medicines if you are having trouble getting pregnant.
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