Diabetes often referred as diabetes mellitus describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar) either because insulin production is inadequate or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination) they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).
Type 1 Diabetes
The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year often in early adulthood or teenage years.
Type 2 Diabetes
The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).
Keeping blood sugar levels within the range recommended by doctor can be challenging. That's because many things make blood sugar levels change, sometimes unexpectedly. Following are some factors that
Checking blood sugar level
- Food- Healthy eating is a cornerstone of healthy living with or without diabetes. But if you have diabetes you need to know how foods affect your blood sugar levels.
-Exercises- Physical activity is another important part of your diabetes management plan. When you exercise, your muscles use sugar (glucose) for energy. Regular physical activity also helps body use insulin more efficiently.
-Medications- Insulin and other diabetes medications are designed to lower blood sugar levels when diet and exercise alone aren't sufficient for managing diabetes. But the effectiveness of these medications depends on the timing and size of the dose. Medications you take for conditions other than diabetes also can affect your blood sugar levels.
-Illness- When you're sick, your body produces stress-related hormones that help your body fight the illness, but they can also raise your blood sugar level. Changes in your appetite and normal activity may also complicate diabetes management.
-Alcohol- The liver normally releases stored sugar to counteract falling blood sugar levels. But if your liver is busy metabolizing alcohol, your blood sugar level may not get the boost it needs from the liver.
-Menstruation and menopause- Changes in hormone levels the week before and during menstruation can result in significant fluctuations in blood sugar levels. And in the few years before and during menopause, hormone changes may result in unpredictable variations in blood sugar levels that complicate diabetes management.
-Stress- If you're stressed, the hormones your body produces in response to prolonged stress may cause a rise in your blood sugar level.