Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, billiary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
The symptoms relate to the organ affected and can include obstruction (leading to difficulty in swallowing or defecating), abnormal bleeding or other associated problems.
Esophageal cancer is the sixth-most-common cancer in the world. There are two main types of esophageal cancer, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer of the esophagus is often detected late as there are typically no early symptoms.
Cancer of the stomach, also called gastric cancer, is the fourth-most-common type of cancer and the second-highest cause of cancer death globally. The most common type of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma. Important factors that may contribute to the development of gastric cancer include diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, genetic aspects (including a number of heritable syndromes) and infections (for example, Helicobacter pylori or Epstein-Barr virus) and pernicious anemia.
Pancreatic cancer is the fifth-most-common cause of cancer. These cancers are classified as endocrine or nonendocrine tumors. The most common is ductal adenocarcinoma. The most significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer are advanced age (over 60) and smoking.Chronic pancreatitis, diabetes or other conditions may also be involved in their development.Early pancreatic cancer does not tend to result in any symptom but when a tumor is advanced a patient may experience severe pain in the upper abdomen, possibly radiating to the back. Another symptom might be jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.
People get liver cancer also called hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC or hepatoma typically from a prolonged Hepatitis B or C infection or as a result of cirrhosis from chronic alcoholism. Liver cancer may bring about yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), itching (pruritis), or cause a buildup of fluid in the abdomen (ascites). A person may feel an enlarging mass, or the cancer might be revealed by abnormal liver function tests. It is typically diagnosed with biopsy, MRI, ultrasound and with CT.
Gall bladder cancer
Cancers of the gallbladder are typically adenocarcinomas and are common in elderly women. Gallbladder cancer is strongly associated with gallstones, a porcelain gallbladder appearance on ultrasound and the presence of polyps within the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer may manifest with weight loss, jaundice, and pain in the upper right of. It is typically diagnosed with ultrasound and staged with CT. The prognosis for gallbladder cancer is poor.
Colorectal cancer is a disease of old age. It typically originates in the secretory cells lining the gut and risk factors include diets low in vegetable fibre and high in fat. If a younger person gets such a cancer, it is often associated with hereditary syndromes like Peutz-Jegher's, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or familial adenomatous polyposis. Colorectal cancer can be detected through the bleeding of a polyp, colicky bowel pain, a bowel obstruction or the biopsy of a polyp at a screening colonoscopy. A constant feeling of having to go to the toilet or anemia might also point to this kind of cancer.
Use of a colonoscope can find these cancers, and a biopsy can reveal the extent of the involvement of the bowel wall. Removal of a section of the colon is necessary for treatment, with or without chemotherapy. Colorectal cancer has a comparatively good prognosis when detected early.
An important anatomic landmark in anal cancer is the pectinate line (dentate line), which is located about 1–2 cm from the anal verge (where the anal mucosa of the anal canal becomes skin).Anal cancers located above this line (towards the head) are more likely to be carcinomas, whilst those located below (towards the feet) are more likely to be squamous cell carcinomas that may ulcerate. Anal cancer is strongly associated with ulcerative colitis and the sexually transmissible infections HPV and HIV. Anal cancer may be a cause of constipation or tenesmus, or may be felt as a palpable mass, although it may occasionally present as an ulcerative form.
Anal cancer is investigated by biopsy and may be treated by excision and radiotherapy, or with external beam radiotherapy and adjunctive chemotherapy. The five-year survival rate with the latter procedure is above 70%.
Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor
A gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor is a rare, slow-growing form of cancer that affects certain cells in the lining of the stomach and intestines. The cells it affects make hormones that regulate the production of digestive juices and muscles that move food through the stomach and intestines. This kind of cancer usually occurs in the appendix, small intestine, or rectum. Its presence is associated with an increased risk of cancers affecting the other parts of the digestive system. It is usually treated with surgery.
Cancer Treatmnet at GNH Hospital Gurgaon Haryana India
Cancer needs a multi modality treatment which may involve surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. At GNH Hospital Gurgaon Haryana India all types of cancers are treated with good success rate by team of very experienced team of cancer specialists and cancer surgeons. The team has an experience of over 30 years in treating various types of cacer like GI Cancer, Breast Cancer, Oral Camcer and many more.